April 17, 2014
Primobolan: Anabolic pharmacology - a growth-promoting effect in muscle

Methenolone is a synthetic derivative of dihydrotestosterone that is more commonly known by the trade name, Primobolan. The acetate ester version is taken orally, although there was once an injectable version of this ester. A highly-overlooked steroid, many people do not consider Primobolan to be very effective and coupled with its high price, do not consider it to be worthwhile. The oral form of methenolone is relatively weak due to the fact that methenolone is not 17-alpha alkylated. Instead, the 1-methyl group seems to offer some protection from metabolism to 1- and 2-hydroxy metabolites. Even so, the acetate does not have great oral bioavailability and a pretty high dose is needed to see significant effects.

Since it is a DHT derivative, methenolone does not aromatize nor does it have much progestational activity. In fact, being a DHT derivative, Primobolan likely acts as an aromatase inhibitor to some degree, which probably contributes to its reputation as a ‘dry gainer’ with less suppressive effects. Since it is already 5-alpha reduced, it does not get metabolized by 5-alpha reductase. Methenolone still undergoes metabolism by 3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle, but less so than DHT. This results in a molecule that is somewhat less potent but still has a decent anabolic-to-androgenic ratio. Furthermore, it binds only moderately to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and there is no evidence that methenolone interacts to any degree with the glucocorticoid or progesterone receptors.

Primobolan does not bring on massive weight gain, but this is due to the fact that there is very little water and fat accumulated. Primobolan is used for adding quality mass with little to no side effects, but the injectable version is much preferred over the oral version. Low doses of Primobolan have been used by women, with minimal side effects. Some have argued that Primobolan can be used without shutting down natural testosterone production. While suppression will be reduced with this steroid because it does not convert to estrogen, there will still be some reduction in testosterone production that will become worse as higher doses are used. A little-known fact about methenolone is that it has been shown to have similar levels of efficacy as oxymetholone for elevating red blood cell count.3 Methenolone the tablets or the injectable has never been as available as most of the other ‘standbys,’ and is often expensive when it is found. There are only a few pharmaceutical preparations available, and these items are often scarce— even from black-market sources.

Methenolone enanthate is the injectable form of this steroid, referred to as Primobolan Depot, its original trade name. The enanthate ester provides for a relatively slow release from the injection site and could be injected as infrequently as every 10 to 14 days, though most users will inject it weekly or even twice weekly. The injectable version of methenolone is much more effective than the oral version, since you do not have the effect of first-pass metabolism to contend with. Once the ester is stripped off, you have just the parent methenolone molecule.

The injectable version of methenolone with the enanthate ester is a potent steroid. It is usually injected on a weekly or sometimes shorter basis in doses of 400 to 600 milligrams for men and 50 to 100 milligrams for women. Women actually do better with a longer injection period of 10 to 12 days, to avoid a buildup in androgen levels. Methenolone is considered to be one of the safest steroids. Although methenolone is not C-17 alpha-alkylated, the 1-methyl group can cause some elevations in liver enzymes (even with the injectable)— but less so than the C-17 alkyl derivatives such as methandrostenolone. This is definitely not an ‘instant gratification’ drug, because it does not cause large amounts of water retention, and is less potent than other commonly-used injectables like nandrolone or even testosterone. Some people still prefer methenolone because even though it does not result in immediate gains, it generally doesn’t produce as many side effects as other drugs.

April 11, 2014
Testosterone Cypionate

Testosterone Cypionate is the longest-estered testosterone available today. It has a half-life in the body of 15 to 16 days and is found as injectable oil. Because it reacts in the body for so long, it can cause more water retention than other anabolic steroids and is best used as bulking compound in a stack.

Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for many of the physical and emotional traits of men. It creates the deeper voices, sex drive, aggression and, of coarse, larger muscles in men. Testosterone makes the muscles retain more nitrogen, which in turn makes the muscle synthesize proteins better, producing larger muscles. The downside to testosterone steroids is that they aromatize, or turn into estrogen, in the body. When the body has too much estrogen it begins to take on female characteristics gynocomastia, water retention, fat gain, loss of sex drive and testicular shrinkage are all most certain side effects of taking testosterone and letting it aromatize in the body.

American athletes have a long and fond relationship with Testosterone cypionate. While Testosterone enanthate is manufactured widely throughout the world, cypionate seems to be almost exclusively an American item. It is therefore not surprising that American athletes particularly favor Testosterone Cypionate. But many claim this is not just a matter of simple pride, often swearing Testosterone Cypionate to be a superior product, providing a bit more of a “kick” than enanthate. At the same time it is said to produce a slightly higher level of water retention, but not enough for it to be easily discerned. Of course when we look at the situation objectively, we see these two steroids are really interchangeable, and Testosterone Cypionate is not at all superior. Both are long acting oil-based injectables, which will keep testosterone levels sufficiently elevated for approximately two weeks. Enanthate may be slightly better in terms of testosterone release, as this ester is one carbon atom lighter than Testosterone Cypionate (remember the ester is calculated in the steroids total milligram weight). The difference is so insignificant however that no one can rightly claim it to be noticeable (we are maybe talking a few milligrams per shot). Regardless, Testosterone Cypionate came to be the most popular testosterone ester on the U.S. black market for a very long time

As with all testosterone injectables, one can expect a considerable gain in muscle mass and strength during a cycle. Since testosterone readliy converts to estrogen, the mass gained from this drug is likely to be accompanied by quite a bit of water retention. The resulting loss of definition of course makes Testosterone Cypionate a very poor choice for dieting or cutting phases. The excess level of estrogen brought about by this drug can also cause one to develop gynecomastia rather quickly. Should one notice an uncomfortable soreness, swelling or lump under the nipple, an ancillary drug like Nolvadex should be added immediately. This will minimize the effect of estrogen greatly, making the steroid much more tolerable to use. The powerful anti-aromatases Arimidex, Femara, or Aromasin are yet a better choice. Those who have a known sensitivity to estrogen may find it more beneficial to use ancillary drugs like Nolvadex and Proviron from the onset of the cycle, in order to prevent estrogen related side effects before they become apparent.

Since testosterone is the primary male androgen, we should also expect to see pronounced androgenic side effects with this drug. Much intensity is related to the rate in which the body converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This, as you know, is the devious metabolite responsible for the high prominence of androgenic side effects associated with testosterone use. This includes the development of oily skin, acne, body/facial hair growth and male pattern balding. Those worried that they may have a genetic predisposition toward male pattern baldness may wish to avoid testosterone altogether. Others opt to add the ancillary drug Proscar/Propecia, that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This can greatly reduce the chance for running into a hair loss problem, and will probably lower the intensity of other androgenic side effects. Although active in the body for much longer time, Testosterone Cypionate is injected on a weekly or bi-weekly basis in order to maintain stable blood levels. At a dosage of 250mg to 800mg per week we should certainly see dramatic results. It is interesting to note that while a large number of other steroidal compounds have been made available since testosterone injectables, they are still considered to be the dominant bulking agents among bodybuilders. There is little argument that these are among the most powerful mass drugs. When taking dosages above 800-1000mg per week there is little doubt that water retention will come to be the primary gain, far outweighing the new mass accumulation. The practice of “megadosing” is therefore inefficient, especially when we take into account the typical high cost of steroids today.

It is also important to remember that the use of an injectable testosterone will quickly suppress endogenous testosterone production. It is therefore mandatory to complete a proper post cycle therapy, constisting of HCG and Clomid or Nolvadex at the conclusion of a cycle. This should help the user avoid a strong “crash” due to hormonal imbalance, which can strip away much of the new muscle mass and strength. This is no doubt the reason why many athletes claim to be very disappointed with the final result of steroid use, as there is often only a slight permanent gain if anabolics are discontinued incorrectly. Of course we cannot expect to retain every pound of new bodyweight after a cycle. This is especially true whenever we are withdrawing a strong (aromatizing) androgen like testosterone, as a considerable drop in weight (and strength) is to be expected as retained water is excreted. This should not be of much concern; instead the user should focus on ancillary drug therapy so as to preserve the solid mass underneath. Another way athletes have found to lessen the “crash”, is to first replace the testosterone with a milder anabolic like Deca-Durabolin. This steroid is administered alone, at a typical dosage (200-400mg per week), for the following month or two. In this “stepping down” procedure the user is attempting to turn the watery bulk of a strong testosterone into the more solid muscularity we see with nandrolone preparations. In many instances this practice proves to be very effective. Of course we must remember to still administer ancillary drugs at the conclusion, as endogenous testosterone production will not be rebounding during the Deca therapy.

April 4, 2014
Anabolic Steroid Injections and Abscesses

A case report is presented of a 26 year old anabolic steroid user who did not use sterile injection techniques and wound up with an injection-related thigh abscess. This individual reported sharing multidosage vials with two other weightlifting colleagues who also developed infections. It took approximately 3-4 months and a trip to the emergency room to control the infection and begin healing.

Two factors put American bodybuilders and strength athletes at risk of injection-related infections. One, strict government policies established in the 1980′s regarding the legal consequences of using and/or possessing anabolic/androgenic steroids has greatly curtailed their availability through medical channels. Two, many novice steroid users are unfamiliar with the risks involved in improper injection methods as well as the risks involved with sharing needles and/or vials.

Physicians have been put under tremendous pressure not to prescribe anabolic steroids to individuals for purposes of physical enhancement, thus diminishing the availability of anabolic steroids through proper channels. American pharmaceutical companies have also greatly decreased production of anabolic steroids. It just isn’t financially practical if physicians can no longer prescribe them to a broader market. This has lead to a boom in black market products, most of which are of questionable quality and are often produced under unsterile manufacturing conditions.

Most bodybuilders do not have the means or education necessary to recognize counterfeits or have all of their drugs tested in a laboratory for purity. As a result, people are gambling with their health by using steroids they procure from black market sources. Sometimes the product is fairly pure and the user experiences the expected results. Then again, how often do you hear about a bodybuilder doing a cycle and experiencing none of the expected gains? Usually the guy feels too foolish to tell everybody, “Hey everybody, look at what a fool I am. I just spent a ton of money on steroids, bought them from someone I didn’t know personally, and they turned out to be fake! In fact, I have no idea what I just injected into my body over the last several weeks!” This is not the kind of thing an aspiring young bodybuilder brags about.

Sometimes the mysterious oil in the bottle is innocuous, sometimes it contains infectious agents such as rare bacteria and toxic chemicals. There are several reports in the literature of bodybuilders getting abscess’ from “atypical bacteria”. Atypical bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment, are able to survive for prolonged periods without nutrients, such as in a vial of anabolic steroids, and are very capable of causing difficult to treat infections at the site of injection.

If you surf the bodybuilding message boards you will undoubtedly find numerous questions from novice drug users. The anonymous writer usually wants to know, “how much should I take?”, “When will I start seeing gains?”, or “what should I combine with it?”. It is not very often that someone asks, “how do I avoid infecting myself with my own skin flora?” or “what should I tell my physician to test for when this thing gets infected?”. All to often the excitement of having that precious little bottle of dreams in their hands makes them throw caution to the wind. There is also the matter of secrecy. I often get the sense that some bodybuilders get a sort of juvenile titillation from just talking aboutanabolic steroids and just can’t keep the secret to themselves. When they just can’t stand the excitement of being so sneaky anymore and begin to talk about using them, they seldom ask intelligent questions. Those who are more mature yet equally uninformed face another dilemma, how do you ask questions relating to self administering injectable drugs without incurring other’s curiosity as to why you would want to know…. “Well,…I have this friend who…”, anyway, you get the picture.

Then there are the experienced users who simply get careless. It is this population that is perhaps more at risk simply because of the greater volume of drugs they use throughout their bodybuilding career. You will not usually get wind of a well known bodybuilder suffering from injection related infections. It’s not that they don’t happen, it’s simply that you don’t hear about them. Drug paraphernalia and prescription laws in many states, which are intended to curtail illicit drug use, decrease access to sterile injection equipment even for experienced users. Many times when darts and vials are scarce, they are shared. This greatly increases the risk of contracting blood born pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis C and hepatitis B. There are documented cases of each of these diseases being contracted after injecting steroids.

A word of caution is all I offer. There are proper ways of administering injectable drugs that reduce the risk of infection. There are also life saving precautions that must be taken by bodybuilders using anabolic steroids such as not sharing needles and not sharing multi-dose vials. If you are willing to put in the effort and pay the price to get illegal injectable steroids, at least take the time to educate yourself about the proper way to administer them as well as the risks involved with their use.

March 28, 2014
Winstrol (Stanozolol) A Basic Guide

Stanozolol has a anabolic rating of 320 and an androgenic rating of 30 making it an excellent steroid for promoting muscle growth with zero water retention. Stanozolol cannot aromatize into estrogen so estrogenic side effects like water retention are not a factor. Even the most gyno prone users can use Winstrol without any worry of gynocomastia.

Winstrol is excellent for dieting bodybuilders and is best employed near the end of a cutting cycle to keep the user anabolic but give a dry shredded appearance. Winstrol is also favored by speed athletes like runners, swimmers and even fighters who want to stay in a certain weight class but want to have an anabolic edge.

Winstrol also significantly lowers SHBG even at very low doses in a matter of a few days. This is significant because that equates to more free testosterone. Winstrol stacked with testosterone means more testosterone stays free or active. Some users report increased sex drive when stacking Winstrol with testosterone. Basically Winstrol makes your testosterone work better and it can raise libido.

Administration Men

A good starting dose for performance is 25-50mg Winstrol daily. I prefer to stack Winstrol with testosterone propionate. I also prefer shorter runs of around 3-6 weeks due to liver stress and Winstrol’s profound ability to lower HDL and raise LDL cholesterol like most oral steroids.

Administration Women

A good starting dose for performance is 10mg Winstrol daily for 6-8 weeks. A more adventuresome female may take up to 20mg Winstrol daily, however side effects such as interrupted menstruation, acne, oily skin, hair loss and deepening of the voice will likely increase with dosage.

Not all Winstrol is created equal

Injectable Winstrol is usually a suspension as opposed to a solution. Suspensions have tiny particles that are visible with the naked eye. If left on the shelf for a few days many times the particles will sink to the bottom leaving the clear solvents and water on the top. Depending on the manufacturer, particle sizes vary meaning some Winstrol preparations can clog a 22 gauge needle. Ultra micronized Winstrol can easily pass through a 25 gauge needle making injections more comfortable. Because of the various particle sizes Winstrol may remain active in the blood stream for several days once injected. Basically the solution almost immediately hits the blood stream when injected and then a few days later the solid particles are slowly absorbed by the body. The basis for this was demonstrated in March of 2011 in a pharmacokinetics study done in horses that reported a median terminal half-life of 39 hours with aqueous Testosterone Suspension. Therefore every other day dosing is reasonable with injectable Stanozolol.

March 21, 2014
Anabolic Steroids & Prohormones – Are they one in the same?

Today, there is no disputing the fact that the prohormone/anabolic steroid industry has become one of the most successful categories of performance enhancers in supplement history. With over a decade of product innovation already behind us, we have seen some of the world’s most potent anabolic compounds sold right on our store shelves as genuine legal alternatives to anabolic steroids. Right from the start, those within the supplement industry decided to coin the term “prohormone” in an effort to both define and differentiate this category of supplements from its peers. This is all well and good, but for the fact that this term is misleading and responsible for much of the current confusion regarding the similarities and differences between prohormones and anabolic steroids.

The supplement industry defines a prohormone as a steroid hormone which, once inside the body, is capable of converting into another active steroid, while anabolic steroids are active in their original form, not requiring any conversion in order to display anabolic effects. However, this generalized definition of prohormones is not accurate. In reality, the term prohormone and anabolic steroid are synonymous, as prohormones and anabolic steroids often display the exact same characteristics, demonstrating anabolic activity in both their pre and post-conversion states. A big part of the reason for the current misunderstanding is not due to the terms themselves, but in how they have been applied. With supplement companies advertising these products as different from anabolic steroids, it is not hard to see why most consumers have developed a relatively distorted view of prohormones, seeing them solely as legal alternatives to “real” gear and therefore, making a marked distinction between the two.

With this prevailing line of thought established, many were led to believe that prohormones are inactive in their original form and must undergo conversion in order to cause muscle growth. While it is true that some prohormones are inactive in their original state, many are not an often, their growth promoting effects are derived almost entirely from the original molecule. This marred perspective is due primarily to the supplement industry, which has sent out a consistent message over the years, labeling prohormones as nothing more than gateways to the more well-known anabolic steroids. Any inherent anabolic activity attributable to the parent molecule is usually ignored, while the focus is placed almost entirely on the post-conversion anabolic steroid. With the average bodybuilder readily recognizing these more common steroid names, can we really blame our supplement companies for continuing to focus on them over the less well known anabolic steroids?

As mentioned above, the ability of hormones to convert into other steroids is certainly nothing new. After all, many of our traditional anabolic steroids do just that. Let’s take a look at a few examples. Boldenone (commonly known as EQ) is a veterinary anabolic steroid frequently used by BB’rs, but it is also capable of converting into another extremely potent anabolic steroid called Dihydroboldenone (1-testosterone). This undeniably makes Boldenone a PH to Dihydroboldenone, yet we never hear anyone refer to Boldenone as a PH. Ironically, the old-school supplement called 1-AD also converted into 1-testosterone, yet it was marketed specifically as a prohormone. Another example anabolic steroid sharing the dual title of prohormone-anabolic steroids is the big-daddy of all steroids, testosterone. Testosterone is technically a prohormone, as it converts into several other active metabolites. Have you ever heard of dihydrotestosterone? How about Estrogen? Well, testosterone converts into both, officially making it a prohormone.

I could go on listing dozens of other anabolic steroids, all of which convert into other active metabolites within the body, but you get the point. So, with both anabolic steroids and OTC prohormones often displaying the exact same characteristics, why do so many people make a distinction between these drugs and place them into different classes? While the original cause may have been so supplement distributers could differentiate their products from illegal anabolic steroids and thereby minimize the potential for FDA involvement, the second cause is due to a lack of knowledge regarding steroid history. In order to understand how we arrived at this juncture, we need to take a brief look back in time and see how the steroid market progressed, as these were the years responsible for forming our current understanding of what steroids are.

Before “prohormones” first came on the scene, the typical steroid user was largely ignorant of the immense amount of anabolic steroid research which had been conducted in the 50’s and 60’s and therefore, had little to no knowledge of the huge number of diverse anabolic steroids which had been synthesized, studied, and later archived. Their knowledge of steroids was limited almost entirely to the category of anabolic now defined as “traditional” steroids. Traditional steroids are those anabolic steroids which were selected from a much larger group of officially recognized drugs, which were subsequently manufactured for legitimate medical or veterinary use. These were the only steroids bodybuilders had available, with mass pharmaceutical diversion taking place on a wide-scale. We didn’t have supplement companies releasing new steroids every 6 months. There were no prohormones or designer steroids…and UGL’s did not yet exist. What we had was what we had. With such a limited selection, it became easy for bodybuilders to associate the term “steroid” with this particular group of brand name drugs and it remained this way for decades.

So, after supplement manufacturers released the first OTC steroids, the term “prohormone” was accepted with little resistance. With such little knowledge available on the subject at that time and with these compounds being completely unknown to the bodybuilding community, this is not surprising. The 1st prohormones to be released were 4-AD and a 19-nor. With oral administration being the only legal option and with no delivery system in place to protect the molecule from degradation, very little of the steroid was able to survive the digestive process. Up to 95%+ of the PH never made it into the bloodstream and with conversion taking place a relatively low rate, results were basically non-existent. On the other hand, when injected at sufficient dosages, 4-AD was capable of producing meaningful results, although these results were due mostly to 4-AD itself…not conversion to testosterone. It was more of the same with 19-nor; no delivery system, mediocre conversion rate, etc. All in all, the first generation of prohormones were crap. After identifying these shortcomings, some manufacturers released a transdermal version of these compounds. They definitely worked better than their predecessors, but were nothing to write home about.

Up to this point, there had been a clear agenda among the prohormone industry to differentiate these products from steroids. Even the lead magazines of the day, which at that time were the main sources of information on products of this nature, were circulating misinformation. On many occasions, it was claimed that prohormones were incapable of mediating anabolic activity in their pre-conversion state and were thus defined as non-steroids. Whether this was due to legitimate ignorance or a desire to keep these products segregated from traditional steroids, I do not know. Regardless, time has shown this lie dies hard. Even today, a large percentage of our fellow bodybuilders believe them to be incapable of initiating growth pre-conversion. With so much contradictory information out there, the less educated remain misinformed.

We’ve spent the last several paragraphs discussing the similarities between prohormones and anabolic steroids, providing several examples of prohormones that demonstrate anabolic effects in both their pre and post-conversion states. However, there are also some prohormones which possess no anabolic activity in their original state, but must undergo conversion to active anabolic steroids before they can positively impact muscle growth. The metabolism of testosterone within the human body provides us with an example of both types of prohormones. See below.

Metabolism of Testosterone


As you work your way up from the bottom, you can see that cholesterol is first step in the synthesis of testosterone in the body. Although it demonstrates no anabolic activity on its own, cholesterol is technically a steroid hormone, which also serves as prohormone to pregnenolone. In the same way, pregnenolone is a prohormone to DHEA, neither of which have much effect on muscle growth in the typical male. These are all examples of prohormones which must undergo the conversion process in order to elicit any type of growth response. We need to work our way all the way up the ladder to androstanedione before we come to a prohormone capable of mediating growth on its own. After androstanedione we reach testosterone and lastly, we come to DHT. Every single hormone above is a PH and also a steroid, except for DHT, as DHT is not able to convert to anything beyond itself. Some other examples of anabolic steroids which are unable to convert to other active metabolites are: Anavar, SD, Anadrol, Winstrol, M1T, Methylstenbolone, and Trenbolone.

Hopefully, this brief explanation was at least somewhat helpful in distinguishing between the various steroid hormones, as well as dismantling current misconceptions as they pertain to various OTC products. So, the next time you see someone on the boards remarking that prohormones aren’t “real” gear, you will be able to correct their error accordingly.

March 14, 2014
Training stimulates action of Methandrostenolone

Training makes methandrostenolone – the active ingredient in the classic steroid Dianabol – more active. According to an animal study soon to be published in Archives of Toxicology, intensive training boosts the muscle-growth effect of methandrostenolone… in muscles you haven’t even trained.

The researchers, working at the German Sport University Cologne, are doing fundamental research on anabolic steroids and their side effects. For this experiment they gave half of a group of male rats the equivalent of 50 mg methandrostenolone per day, and the other half nothing. The researchers ‘dissolved’ the steroid with DMSO in groundnut oil, and injected the rats with the oil.

The researchers then trained half of the animals in each group and did not train the other half. Training consisted of getting the rats to run at high speed in a mill for 15 minutes a day. The speed was meant to imitate the exertion of a strength training session. The experiment lasted 21 days.

In the figures below C stands for the rats that did not train and were not given methandrostenolone; T for the rats that trained but were not given methandrostenolone; M for the rats that were given methandrostenolone but did not train and MT for the rats that trained and were given methandrostenolone.

The rats did not train their levator ani muscle. The growth of this muscle is a classic indicator of the anabolic effect of anabolic steroid hormones. Nevertheless the muscle grew more in the rats that had trained and taken methandrostenolone than in the rats that were only given the steroid and didn’t train. The combination resulted in an increased production of the androgen receptor [AR] in some muscles and in the prostate.

Nevertheless, the prostate was the same size in the MT and the M group rats after 21 days.

The researchers are not sure why this was the case, but it seems that training activates methandrostenolone [structural formula show above] in such a way that the steroid induces muscles that you are not training to grow as well. At the same time training ensures that the undesirable androgenic side effects of methandrostenolone don’t increase. Strange. Very strange.

March 5, 2014
Bodybuilding and the Endocrine System


Many health benefits are to be gained through bodybuilding. In fact, bodybuilding’s training regimes and dietary practices can enhance cardiovascular, mental and immune health and
improve weight loss. One aspect of health that is not often touched on, when bodybuilding’s benefits are discussed, is the endocrine (or hormonal) system.

The endocrine system is comprised of chemical substances called hormones which serve as messengers, passing information from endocrine gland to organ, to control a large number of
physiologic functions. To ensure these functions are governed efficiently, effective hormonal control is of paramount importance.

Exercise is one of the best ways to beneficially assist the release and reception of hormones. Studies have shown that exercise actually increases the amount of circulating hormones in our
bodies as well as strengthening the receptor sites on their target organ cells.

The Endocrine System

The endocrine systems glands manufacture and secrete hormones, which communicate with specific organs and, in concert with the nervous and immune systems, enable vital functions to  occur within our bodies. The endocrine glands are ductless, which means they secrete the hormones they manufacture directly into the bloodstream to be taken to the appropriate target organ, upon which these hormones act. Specific cells on the target organ which act as binding sites (hormone receptors) recognize the shape of each hormone and allow it to enter (a
lock and key mechanism). Hormones bring their characteristic effects on target cells by modifying cellular activity, and given that they are very potent substances, hormones need to be tightly regulated to maintain homeostasis. Many hormones are controlled through what is termed a negative feedback mechanism, which causes a reversal of increases or decreases in the concentration of a particular hormone, to maintain homeostasis. This negative feedback mechanism illustrates just how sensitive a target organ is to the hormone it receives.

The Major Endocrine Glands Are:

  • The thyroid 
  • Parathyroid 
  • Adrenal 
  • Pituitary 
  • Pineal glands 
  • Pancreas 
  • Testes 
  • Ovaries

Organs that are hormonally active as part of their function, but are not endocrine glands per se, are:

  • Thymus 
  • Stomach 
  • Heart 
  • Small-intestine 
  • Placenta

Although the endocrine glands are scattered throughout the body, and serve different functions, they are considered a system because they have similar mechanisms of influence and functions, and many important relationships.

The Three General Classes Of Hormones Classified By Their Protein or Steroid Chemical Structure Are:

  • Amino Acid Derivatives: as the name suggests these are derived from amino acids; tyrosine in particular. Epinephrine for example is an amino acid derived hormone.
  • Steroid Hormones: these include prostaglandins and all are lipids, made from cholesterol.
  • Peptide Hormones: the biggest group of hormones, peptides are short chains of amino acids. Insulin for example is a peptide hormone. 

Key hormones beneficially affected by exercise are:

  • Testosterone 
  • Growth hormone 
  • Estrogen 
  • Thyroxine 
  • Epinephrine 
  • Insulin 
  • Endorphins 
  • Glucagon

Both males and females produce testosterone, which is a key bodybuilding hormone, as it increases basal metabolic rate, decreases body fat, increases feelings of self-confidence, and maintains muscle volume, tone and strength. In fact, testosterone, along with growth hormone, is responsible for the hypertrophy (increased size and density) of muscle cells as well as the repair of micro-tears in the muscle tissue.

Females have only about one tenth of the testosterone males have, but even at that level, powerful effects are exerted: libido and strength of orgasm for example. The process underlying testosterones release is rather complex.

Firstly, the hypothalamus (situated in the brain), releases gonadotrophin releasing hormone to the anterior pituitary gland, which, in turn, releases luteinizing hormone, which travels to the Leydig cells of the testes and stimulates the enzymatic conversion of cholesterol to Testosterone.

The key to boosting testosterone levels through exercise is to concentrate on the larger muscle groups while avoiding training the same body-part two days in a row.

It has also been shown that a higher level of training intensity can be achieved in the morning as it is then that testosterone levels are at their highest. Consequently, greater gains could  theoretically be made at this time.

Repetitions should be kept low, while a correspondingly heavy weight is lifted, if testosterone boosting is ones aim. 85% of ones one-repetition-maximum for 1-2 reps is best.

In essence, the best form of training for testosterone increase is short, intense, anaerobic session. With aerobic training, shorter, 45-minute sessions are ideal as testosterone is depressed is this period is exceeded.

Growth Hormone

Growth hormone which is released from the brains pituitary gland is an important bodybuilding hormone. Growth hormone stimulates protein synthesis, and helps to strengthen bones, ligaments, tendons and cartilage. It also plays a role in fat mobilization, and the corresponding decrease in carbohydrate usage, during exercise. As a result, body fat is used and blood glucose levels are balanced which allows one to train over a longer period of time (without exceeding the testosterone maximizing 45-minute  period of course).

Increases in growth hormone provide a multitude of immediate benefits which include, increased energy, ability to concentrate, and interest and ability in sex. Longer- term benefits include, increased aerobic capacity and strength, thickening of hair, tightening of wrinkles and loose skin, decrease in visceral fat, and strengthening of osteoporotic bones. Growth hormone production is reduced significantly as we age and can be prescribed to offset the negative effects of aging. However, without going to extremes, one can increase their output of growth hormone in the most effective natural way possible: though exercise.

For increased growth hormone the most productive form of exercise is vigorous, sustained anaerobic training. Adopt the same strategy as when training for testosterone release and,  target the large muscle groups, the quads in particular. Train no longer than 30 minutes when specifically aiming to increase growth hormone.

This applies to aerobic training also, which should be undertaken at a very high intensity; bordering on anaerobic. Interval training is the ideal.


The beneficial effects of estrogen, in its most biologically active form, 17 beta estradiol, include, fat mobilisation for fuel, mood elevation, increased basal metabolic rate, and libido in women primarily. As a woman ages her estrogen levels vary to regulate the reproductive system and are reduced significantly by the time she reaches menopause.

A study by Copeland, Consitt and Tremblay, reported that blood levels of estrogen, were significantly higher in women aged 19-69 years old after 40 minutes of either endurance or resistance exercise versus a control group who performed no exercise. Furthermore, blood levels of estrogen remain elevated for up to four-hours following an exercise session.


This hormone is produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland and its main role is to raise the body’s metabolic rate. It is therefore a key hormone for weight-loss, as more calories
are expended through its release. Thyroxine has an additional effect of influencing physical development. Thyroxine increases in the blood by about 30% during exercise and remains elevated for up to five hours afterward. The intensity should be kept high to realise maximum benefit.
Thyroxine levels at rest are also increased through exercise.


Produced in the adrenal medulla, epinephrine, a neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, increases the amount of blood the heart pumps and directs the blood to where it is needed - the extremities. Epinephrine is one of the catecholamines, the other being norepinephrine, and both are synthesised from the amino acid tyrosine.
Epinephrine also stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the liver and muscles and stored fat to be used as fuel. Vasodilation in muscle and liver vasculatures results also from increased epinephrine release. This allows the muscle to receive more oxygenated blood, increasing our ability to use these muscles while exercising.

To increase epinephrine exercise sessions, once again, need to be very intense. The amount of epinephrine released from the medulla is proportional to exercise intensity.


Insulin, produced in the islet cells of the of the pancreas, is an important hormone which decreases (regulates) blood levels of glucose and directs amino acids and fatty acids into cells. Most of our body’s cells have insulin receptors, which are composed of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits linked by disulfide bonds, and bind the circulating insulin. The cell then can activate other receptors which are designed to absorb glucose (sugar) from the blood stream into the cell.

An insulin response ensues after a meal has been consumed. An excessive insulin response causes fat to accumulate within cells, and, over time, those who frequently experience such responses can become overweight and their cells may develop a resistance to insulin (diabetes).

Weight loss through daily aerobic and weight-training can help to rectify this situation, depending on the type of diabetes they have. One may be fortunate to escape diabetes, but they will likely become overweight with continual, excessive insulin responses.

Therefore, it is important to exercise to help offset any potential blood sugar problems. Blood-insulin levels begin to decrease within ten minutes of aerobic training and continue to decrease as the session progresses. Weight training has been shown to increase the cells sensitivity (receptivity) to insulin at rest.


Released from the pituitary gland, the endorphins are an endogenous opioid class of chemicals produced under conditions of pain, which block this pain, decrease appetite, create a feeling of euphoria and reduce tension and anxiety. Biochemically, endorphins are polypeptide neurotransmitters, containing 30 amino acid units. Exercising is particularly beneficial in terms of endorphin release. In fact blood levels of endorphins increase above resiting levels up to five times with longer duration (over 30 minutes) aerobic exercise at moderate to intense levels. An increased sensitivity to endorphins is developed after several months of regular exercise.

This means that a higher high will arise from the same training stimulus. Although longer duration exercise is suggested as a rule, it is rather arbitrary, as individual variability dictates how one will experience the effect of endorphins.


As with insulin, glucagon, a linear peptide of 29 amino acids, is secreted by the pancreas. Its main role, in contradiction to insulin however, is to increase blood glucose levels. Glucagon is synthesized as proglucagon and proteolytically (the hydrolysis of proteins into simpler compounds through the actions of enzymes) processed to yield glucagon within alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. Glucagon exerts its physiologic effects in two ways:

It is secreted when blood sugar falls too low, and this causes carbohydrate in the liver to be released into the blood stream, which raises blood sugar levels to normal.

It activates hepatic gluconeogenesis. This process involves the conversion of amino acids into glucose to be used as energy.
Researchers Bonjorn, Latour, Belanger and Lavoie, from Montreal University, found that exercise enhanced the livers sensitivity to glucagon. This demonstrates the effect exercise, and its
facilitation of glucagon, has on nutritional conversion for energy purposes. Glucagon is typically secreted about 30 minutes into an exercise session, at the onset of blood glucose

February 28, 2014
Nandrolone Decanoate

Nandrolone Decanoate represent drug with high anabolic effects with moderate androgenic proprieties. This supplement is considered to be very effective drug with many benefits to muscle building and few side effects.

Nandrolone Decanoate is one of the few drug in that the enzyme which converts testosterone to the more-potent DHT actually converts nandrolone and block cortisone receptors allowing less cortisone to arrive at their destinations within the muscle and connective tissue.

Nandrolone has a low rate of aromatization. This mean that results obtained after taking this drug are quality muscle mass and strength. It is also preferred by many bodybuilders/athletes because it promotes protein synthesis and simultaneously leads to water retention which is good for developing muscle tissue too.

Nandrolone is a 19-nor compound. In bonded form it is part of protein. Was noticed that this supplement have a very positive effect on nitrogen balance, bone mineral and collagen synthesis that is a very good stimulator of appetite. For this reason in most cases Nandrolone is used in bulking cycles.

By taking Nandrolone Decanoate bodybuilders/athletes should always remember that it has much less muscle building results per-mg than testosterone, and can have negative side effect of temporary impotence. For this reason it should be stacked with Testosterone in order to avoid this unpleasant effect.

A good combination that is often chosen by bodybuilders/athletes is Nandrolone with Sustanon. An effective dose is 200 – 600 mg/week and can be taken for long period of cycle for about 16 weeks.

Possible side-effects are acne, nasal bleeding, excessive bleeding from cuts and increase of production of the sebaceous glands. Water retention, gynecomastia at low dose can be avoided.

February 20, 2014
Anavar - powerful anabolic steroid

Anavar, which is also known as Oxandrolone or Anvar, is a powerful anabolic steroid with a difference. It is hailed as the most effective of all present-day anabolics because of the unique advantages offered by it.

Individuals on Oxandrolone can expect to attain dramatic and instant muscle gains without any side effect. Moreover, this steroid binds well with androgen receptors and is highly effective for losing or gaining body weight. The anabolic product has distinctive anabolic and androgenic properties and does not aromatize to Dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

The chemical name of Oxandrolone is 17ß-hydroxy-17a-methyl-2-oxa-5a-androstan-3-one and the molecular weight is 306.443 g/mol.

Recommended Dose

The recommended dose of Anavar is 2.5 mg to 20 mg per day in 2-4 divided doses for men, with or without meals. For bodybuilders who require more energy, the recommended dose is 50 mg per day for a maximum of 6-8 weeks at a stretch.

It is important to note that use of Anavar must not be initiated without qualified medical advice. Moreover, high-grade quality must be used as per the medical recommendations else side effects such as changes in libido, edema, decreased glucose tolerance, and acne can happen in cases of steroid abuse. This perfect muscle building product is not recommended for individuals suffering from hypercalcemia and pregnant or pregnancy-suspecting women.

We hope that this information on Anavar, the powerful anabolic steroid, was helpful to you in more than just a way.

February 12, 2014
Anabolic Steroid cycle for lean muscles and strength

This is a 12 weeks cycle,  very good for those who want to achieve strength and real , lean muscular mass.

We will start with 4 weeks of danabol at dosage of 40mg/day, some may take for 50mg/day.
In the same time we start injecting testosterone enanthate at dosage of 500mg/week split into 2 injections (Monday and Friday).

Getting 2 injections per week will keep the level more stable.
Start injecting Primobolan (Methenolone Enanthate) at dosage of 400mg /week. (split into 3 injections per week).

Danabol is used to kickstart the cycle. It’s worth mentioning that danabol is toxic for your liver, so taking Liv52 or milk thistle is an important aspect of this cycle.

As a PCT(post cycle therapy) use Tamoxifen and Clomid. 

1-4 Danabol 40mg/day
1-12 Testosterone Enanthate  500mg/week
1-12 Primobolan  400mg/week
7-12 Winstrol 50mg every day

PCT as follow:

Day 1 – Clomid 200mg + Nolvadex 40mg
Following 10 days –
Clomid 50mg + Tamoxifen 20mg 
Following 10 days
– Clomid 50mg or Tamoxifen 20mg

February 7, 2014
High Testosterone

We hear talk of low testosterone all the time; for crying out loud you cant turn the TV on without seeing a commercial regarding Low T. You see advertisements and articles in all of your favorite health and fitness related magazines with products bragging about increasing testosterone levels to give you a boost but you rarely if ever hear anyone talking about high testosterone. We say rarely because the majority will never visit an anabolic steroid related message board; if you do youll hear high testosterone discussed each and every day but most are completely unaware of what high testosterone can do and how it affects us.

Lets be clear right from the get go; high testosterone itself is not something to be afraid of as it is a highly beneficial condition. All of us produce testosterone in varying levels and while rare some will do so in massive amounts and generally thrive at a higher level than the rest. For the rest of us there is only one true way to achieve high testosterone levels and it is through the use of anabolic androgenic steroids; specifically exogenous testosterone. This is where problems can occur if the hormones are abused but if supplemented with in responsible fashion by healthy adult males the individual will see his quality of life greatly enhanced and he too will thrive.

What are the advantages of high testosterone? Actually a better question to ask is what arent they? That is correct, high testosterone can be that amazing as it will positively affect your physical and mental state taking you to new levels of effectiveness in a host of aspects of your life. On the very basis of an improved sense of well-being high levels of this potent androgen should be desired but the benefits hardly end there; no, were just getting started. If this doesnt peak youre interest nothing will; here are some of the advantages of high testosterone:

  • Increased Muscle Mass
  • Increased Strength
  • Decreased Body-Fat
  • Increased Energy
  • Greater Overall Athletic Performance
  • Increased Libido
  • Increased Mental Clarity
  • Increased Memory
  • Enhanced Mood
  • A Greater Sense of Well-Being

Of course and it should go without saying, the higher our levels the more enhanced these traits will be; of course, at the same time there will be somewhat of a cutoff point to where increasing them anymore is a waste of time and effort. While all this remains true this is where we can begin to get into problems as the only true way to obtain high testosterone levels is through the use of the anabolic steroid testosterone itself. When we supplement with testosterone we will find this is a very safe and effective hormone but it does carry possible side-effects when administered in exogenous fashion. Most healthy adult men who supplement and do so responsibly will be fine but there are important factors we must recognize.

We are all unique individuals and as such higher doses of testosterone will affect everyone differently. Further, as the dose goes up, although benefits will be enhanced the rate of probability regarding adverse reactions increases as well. It is a tradeoff and some men will respond well to higher doses while others wont and this can be hard to predict. Even so, with responsible use the majority and we do mean the strong majority of men can increase their levels safely and enjoy the benefits within.

By the very nature in-which anabolic steroids are often portrayed in popular culture many men are petrified of high testosterone levels; in-fact, many men are petrified of simply receiving treatment for a low level condition. This is we can assure you a misplaced fear. Testosterone is not a foreign substance to the body, it is not poison and no one has ever died from exogenous use. That is correct; there has never been a recorded death due to the use of exogenous testosterone or any anabolic androgenic steroid for that matter. The reason most men are so scared of high testosterone levels is simply because they do not understand what the hormone is and how important and vital it is to our body. Regardless of your position on anabolic steroid use you produce testosterone whether you like it or not and if you can begin to understand the importance of the hormone and its basic functions you can at least begin to appreciate what high testosterone levels can do.

January 31, 2014
Anabolic steroids and sports - unique relationship

Despite tall claims and measures by doping and government authorities for keeping a check on the use of anabolic steroids in sports, the relationship between the two is on a growing spree as more and more sportsmen are identifying and sticking to the benefits of steroids.

The fact that anabolic steroids help sportsmen to stay ahead of the competition by delivering top-class performance on a regular basis is impetus driving the sports community.

Anabolic Steroids

A steroid is a chemical substance derived from cholesterol. The body has several major steroid hormones — cortisol and testosterone in the male, estrogen and progesterone in the female. Catabolic steroids break down tissue, and anabolic steroids build up tissue. Anabolic steroids build muscle and bone mass primarily by stimulating the muscle and bone cells to make new protein.

Athletes buy anabolic steroids because they increase muscle strength by encouraging new muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are similar in structure to the male sex hormone, testosterone, so they enhance male reproductive and secondary sex characteristics (testicle development, hair growth, thickening of the vocal cords). They allow the athlete to train harder and longer at any given period.

Anabolic steroids are mostly testosterone (male sex hormone) and its derivatives. Examples of anabolic steroids include:

  • Testosterone
  • Dihydrotestosterone
  • Androstenedione (Andro)
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
  • Clostebol
  • Nandrolone

Though some feel that steroids should not be allowed in sporting events, yet steroids are used on an increasingly basis in the world of sports. It is worth noting that steroids do not result in any side effects in the first place as they occur only when the steroids are abused or of a low-grade quality.

January 31, 2014
Testosterone Cypionate by Geneza Pharmaceuticals - everything you want to know

In the world of anabolic steroids, testosterone products are the most sought-after ones. Among all of them, testosterone cypionate holds a special place among bodybuilders, strength athletes, and celebrities. Read on!

Testosterone Cypionate can be easily defined as an anabolic steroid, which can be best described as a derivative of testosterone.

Available in oral and injectable form, testosterone cypionate has the chemical structure of 4-androstene-3-one,17beta-ol and ester molecular weight of 132.1184 g/mol (cypionic acid, 8 carbons).

It has an anabolic/androgenic ratio of 100/100, which is quite unique for testosterone derivatives. It has an active life of approximately 15-17 days and a detection time of nearly three months.

When used in dose of 20-100 mg per week (with or without meals), it can facilitate dramatic muscle gains. This derivative of testosterone, the male sex hormone, is also very effective in ensuring improvements in terms of stamina, body strength, and protein synthesis. The long acting, single ester testosterone product has a length of 8 carbons and gets stored in the adipose tissue when administered via intramuscular injection.

For best results, testosterone cypionate is to be used by bodybuilders and athletes for a maximum period of 10 weeks at a dose of 500 mg per week. It may be stacked with other anabolic products such as Dianabol, Primobolan, Equipoise, Clenbuterol, and Deca-Durabolin.

All in all, testosterone cypionate is one anabolic steroid that can always be trusted when it comes to attaining dramatic on-field performances on a consistent basis, without any side effects.

January 23, 2014
Oral Turinabol - It’s just about quality gains


If you want to make a big name for yourself in the world of professional sports such as athletics, bodybuilding, or power lifting, you may find many anabolic steroids and performance enhancing drugs but none can match the power and efficacy of Oral Turinabol (Tbol). Let us read about this performance enhancing drug to know more about this potent, safe, effective, and affordable steroid product.

Oral Turinabol or Tbol has been rated as one of the most impressive and safest drugs by professional sportsmen on steroids. The fact that this anabolic steroid can be easily purchased online, with or without a prescription, these days is one of the biggest reasons why Oral Turinabol is getting more-and-more popular these days. Since it does not lead to any health complications unless abused indiscriminately or of a low grade, sportsmen are surely finding more than just a reason to trust and stay satisfied by making use of Oral Turinabol.

The anabolic steroid reduces the fatigue and recovery timeframes associated with intense workout sessions so that users can spend and benefit from efforts at the gym without feeling the heat.

This derivative of Methandrostenolone facilitates dramatic improvements in terms of muscle mass, muscle size, muscle function, performance, and endurance. When used in doses of 100-150 mg/day by men and 5-15 mg/day by women for a period of 6-8 weeks, Oral Turinabol (Tbol) helps users stay close to benefits of steroids in the best possible way. Use of this steroid doesn’t result in fluid retention and gynecomastia, which are common with most anabolic steroids.

January 16, 2014
Main principle of bodybuilding

Exist a lot of myths about importance of diet and exercise in bodybuilding. Each of them is important. There are many so-called “experts” that says that “diet – represent 85% of success” or “not important exercise as a diet.” Such statements is nonsense! To achieve results, and to ensure that time spent in the gym will give 100% result, you need to combine exercise with diet. Only together they will bring you wished goal! In the bodybuilding food is the fuel that your body need for growth, training and drive the process of the formation of muscles.

What does in professional sport an athlete need to succeed in their field? Special sports training and, again, proper nutrition, which make body work. The same can be said about supplements. They are a diet supplement. We do not even give out them in a separate budget item, they usually come in ‘supplements”. It appears in one famous journal – “eat to live but not live to eat.” That food is necessary for the body function, health, and for achieving physical goals. For example, from fish oil, we obtain the required fatty acids as EPA and DHA. American diet does not include the consumption of omega-3, this is the reason of the imbalance of omega-3 and omega-6. That’s why we can recommend to use fish oil. This is not only a very useful product, yet it helps with insulin sensitivity, helps to lose weight, and is required for such complex diseases, such as mental disorders and dyslexia. To make sure your body has enough fatty acids, you need to eat a lot of fish, but not everybody can. So you can take fish oil capsules.

Now a few words about the psychological aspects. Attitude and perseverance – this is important during training; for diet and exercise – most importantly – it’s regularity. To exercise regularly and keep a diet, you need considerable fortitude – so the psychological aspects in the sport are always important. To sum up when training is necessary to consider all the factors. The strength of spirit, a good diet and regular exercise will give you amazing results and attractive body!

Now lets talk about “ideal food” (when you are preparing for a competition). At the moment you training your body consumes and spends a lot more calories than before. At that time, your diet must contain mainly protein and fat, but do not forget about carbs in order to stop the loss of muscle mass. In the end, the results will exceed your wildest expectations.

So here is an example of typical meal:

  • 230 grams of chicken breast or lean meat
  • 230 g sweet potato or potato
  • A tablespoon of macadamia nut oil
  • Broccoli (as much as I can eat)

Proteins and fats are used as “building blocks” for muscle mass and burn fat. In this daily diet there are many amino acids and essential fats, but there are no necessary carbohydrates. That’s where there are carbohydrates. After all, carbs help the proteins and fats to increase muscle mass, and the body gets the energy it needs from carbohydrates. Vegetables are good, they give us fiber, by the way nutshell contains a lot of it. Macadamia nut oil contains monounsaturated fats that are essential for health and well affect the constitution of the body.

10 foods that athletes must use.

Actually it’s not a simple question. Any food is appropriate, even the cookies and ice cream, as such is not a dietary food, if it is scheduled, and you eat it wisely. Well, now the list:

  1. Lean beef: beef contain a lot of protein and linoleic acids, and healthy fats.
  2. Saturated with omega-3 fatty acids DHA domestic chicken eggs.
  3. Sweet potato: rich in carbohydrates and macronutrients, as well as potassium.
  4. Macadamia nut oil, extra virgin olive oil.
  5. Broccoli.
  6. Whey protein: protein source that reduces appetite and is ideal before and after training.
  7. Coconut oil and coconut milk.
  8. Peanut and almond oil.
  9. Seafood: sea salmon, tilapia, shrimp and crabs.
  10. Chicken: Well, and what bodybuilders diet without chicken.

Bodybuilding can make your life better, but do not try to replace your life with it. It teaches people to constancy and determination. Use these basic principles of bodybuilding, they will help you in a career, in the family and in relationships with friends. Bodybuilding reasonable purposes only bring good.